Economics Of Scale

For example, technology to purify water could save many lives, but the villages in peripheral nations most in need of water purification don’t have access to the technology, the funds to purchase it, or the technological comfort level to introduce it as a solution. But the protesters are also right — no nation has ever developed over the long term under the rules being imposed today on third-world countries by the institutions controlling globalization. The United States, Germany, France and Japan all became wealthy and powerful nations behind the barriers of protectionism. East Asia built its export industry by protecting its markets and banks from foreign competition and requiring investors to buy local products and build local know-how. These are all practices discouraged or made illegal by the rules of trade today. The flow of international investment consists both of long-term capital and of speculative short-term capital .
For instance, 58 per cent of those with less education agreed that immigrants take jobs away from Singaporeans, while 43 per cent of those with higher education, who have at least a degree, felt the same way. Those who are of a lower socio-economic class and received less education were more likely to feel the competition. Lower socio-economic class is defined in the study as people who live in three-room or smaller Housing Board flats, while those with an education level of secondary school or below are considered less educated. On immigration, 75 per cent of those polled agreed to a large or moderate extent that immigrants provide a boost to the economy, and 62 per cent agreed that the newcomers improve society by bringing in new ideas and culture.

  • Moreover, by addressing specific global “women’s issues” as independent phenomena, early feminist analyses failed to take into account the systematic and structural gendered injustices associated with neoliberalism.
  • Stiglitz argues that IMF policies contributed to bringing about the 1997 Asian financial crisis, as well as the Argentine economic crisis.
  • Although transnational retail companies can help them, the margins and fees they charge are often very high.
  • Even local, women-run NGOs sometimes fail to live up to their democratic aspirations.
  • Stiglitz believes the IMF and World Bank should be reformed, not dismantled—with a growing population, malaria and AIDS pandemics, and global environmental challenges, Keynes’ mandate for equitable growth is more urgent now than ever.
  • Structural Adjustment Policies have been instrumental in requiring countries in the global South to eliminate social welfare spending.

Caregiving responsibilities should also be more fairly distributed between genders and paid work should be organized with the recognition that all workers—male and female, rich and poor—are responsible for providing care. Unlocking care chains will also require mitigating the unjust background conditions that force women to choose between providing financial support for their families and being with and providing face to face care for them. To begin, immigration policies must include specific provisions that make it easier for careworkers to bring their children or return home on a regular basis. Ultimately, however, eliminating care chains will require restructuring the global economy so that no one is forced to leave her home country to find decent working and living conditions. Trade liberalization has led to the wide-scale movement of once well-paying manufacturing jobs in the global North to low wage, export processing or free trade zones in the global South.
In a state of panic, economists responded with a flood of columns and books that defended the necessity of a more open global market economy, in tones ranging from grandiose to sarcastic. In January 2000, Krugman used his first piece as a New York Times columnist to denounce the “trashing” of the WTO, calling it “a sad irony that the cause that has finally awakened the long-dormant American left is that of – yes! “We need to work with our supply chains and customers to solve these issues. I need to invest, increase automation and make our factories more welcoming for new recruits,” he said. Under the “Made in China” policy launched in 2018, China is already trying to develop more capacity in semiconductors, the lifeblood of consumer goods ranging from Teslas to toasters, and PlayStations to printers, as well as other strategic products.
Communication in the post-pandemic world hinges on the future of the China-US 5G technology hegemony race. Recently, a Japanese newspaper, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, reported2that an analysis of Huawei’s smartphones showed that the usage rate of US-made parts has dropped from about 11% in the recent 4G model to about 1% in the 5G flagship model. In comparison, the usage rate of Chinese-made parts has risen significantly from about 25% to about 42%. That is, since the US government banned Huawei from acquiring technology from US companies without government approval, it made significant adjustments. China is aiming to accelerate the movement to establish its own technology platform.
Globalization detractors argue that it has created a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a small corporate elite that can gobble up smaller competitors around the globe. Globalization also represents a trend toward the development of a single world culture. Even people who have zero sympathy for the May Day protesters ­ who see them as the spoilt children of two generations of post-war peace and prosperity ­ must feel uncomfortable about some aspects of what has come to be called globalisation problems. The healthcare system, cleanliness, Singapore Armed Forces, religious diversity and freedom, education system and Covid-19 pandemic management were among the aspects of Singapore that people were most proud of.
globalisation problems
Brands can become unpopular over time because of scandals, a decline in quality, or countless other reasons. When this happens, a name change can be a way of getting customers to shed those old, negative connotations. As time goes on, companies with more overt negative externalities have come under pressure—particularly in the era of ESG investing. In the case of the former, the switch to TotalEnergies was meant to signal the company’s shift beyond oil and gas to include renewable energy.
The sheer size and reach of the U.S. have made the cultural exchange among nations largely a one-sided affair. Governments worldwide have integrated a free market economic system throughfiscal policiesand trade agreements over the last 20 years. The core of most trade agreements is the removal or reduction of tariffs.

Some would benefit more than others if these import restrictions and subsidies were lifted. FORTUNATELY, the two sides of the globalization debate are–slowly–developing some measure of agreement. In many areas, advocates in both camps see the potential for coordination among transnational companies, multilateral organizations, developing country governments and local aid groups on programs to help the poor. Going beyond the contentious debates and building on the areas of emerging consensus and cooperation, international partnerships may be able to make a dent in the poverty that continues to oppress the lives of billions of people in the world. Rules and policies have traditionally focused on benefits for global consumers based on comparative advantage. Going forward, countries will need trade rules and rule adjustments that allow them to also pursue other national objectives – labor and environmental standards, urgent health needs, and gains for job-creating, green, and socially beneficial producers.
Rodrik argues that the countries in the study may have begun to trade more because they had grown and gotten richer, not the other way around. China and India, he points out, began trade reforms about 10 years after they began high growth. The strategy, which became known as import substitution, produced high growth — for a while. Latin American governments made their consumers buy inferior and expensive products — remember the Brazilian computer of the 1970’s?